The three Levels of Planning in Management by R N Anthony are Strategic, Tactical and Operational.
Levels of Planning in Management
Planning is a HIERARCHICAL activity, linking strategic planning at the top with detailed operational planning at the bottom. Strategic plans set a framework and guidelines within which more detailed plans and shorter-term planning decisions, can be made.
R N Anthony IDENTIFIED three levels of planning within an organisation:
- Strategic Planning; This involves identifying the objectives of the entity and plans for achieving those objectives, mostly over the LONGER term. Strategic plans include corporate strategy plans, business strategy plans and functional strategy plans.
- Tactical Planning; These are shorter-term plans for achieving MEDIUM-term objectives. An example of tactical planning is the annual budget. Budgets and other tactical plans can be seen as steps towards the achievement of longer-term strategic objectives.
- Operational Planning; This is detailed planning of activities, often at a supervisor level or junior management level, for the achievement of SHORT-term goals and targets. For example, a supervisor might divide the workload between several employees in order to complete all the work before the end of the day.
Chartered Accountant (Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan)
Bachelor of Accounting Honours (Asia e University, Malaysia)